Articles and Publications

Articles and publications using NEMSIS data.


Friedman, J., Mann, N.C., Hansen, H., et al. (2021) Racial/Ethnic, Social, and Geographic Trends in Overdose-Associated Cardiac Arrests Observed by US Emergency Medical Services During the COVID-19 Pandemic. JAMA Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0967

Reish, L., Carson, L., Ray, A. (2021) Associations between social drinking events and pedestrian behavior – An observational study Journal of Transport & Health DOI:


Geiger, C., Smart, R., Stein, B.D. (2020) Who receives naloxone from emergency medical services? Characteristics of calls and recent trends Substance Abuse, 41:3, 400-407, DOI:

Yeargin S., Hirschhorn R., Grundstein A. (2020) Heat-Related Illnesses Transported by United States Emergency Medical ServicesMedicina. 2020; 56(10):543.

Friedman, J., Beletsky, L., Schriger, D.L. (2020) Overdose-Related Cardiac Arrests Observed by Emergency Medical Services During the US COVID-19 Epidemic JAMA Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.4218

Satty, T., Ramgopal, S., Elmer, J., Mosesso, N. V., Martin-Gill, C. (2020) EMS responses and non-transports during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine DOI:

Panchal, R. A., Rivard, K. M., Cash, E. R., Corley Jr, P. J., Jean-Baptiste, M., Chrzan, K., & Gugiu, R. M. (2020). Methods and Implementation of the 2019 EMS Practice Analysis Prehospital Emergency Care. DOI:

Qualls, C., Hewes, H., Mann, N. C., Dai, M., & Adelgais, K. (2020). Documentation of Child Maltreatment by Emergency Medical Services in a National DatabasePrehospital Emergency Care, 1–7. DOI:

Miller, M.L., Lincoln, E.W. & Brown, L.H. (2020) Development of a Binary End-of-Event Outcome Indicator for the NEMSIS Public Release Research Dataset, Prehospital Emergency Care, DOI:

Chan HK,Okubo M, Callaway CW, Mann NC,Wang HE. Characteristics of adult out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the National Emergency Medical Services Information System. JACEP Open. 2020;1-8.

Lerner, E.B., Newgard, C.D. and Mann, N.C. (2020), Effect of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID‐19) Pandemic on the United States Emergency Medical Services System: A Preliminary Report. Acad Emerg Med. Accepted Author Manuscript.

Miller KEM, James HJ, Holmes GM, Van Houtven CH. The effect of rural hospital closures on emergency medical service response and transport times. Health Services Research. 55(2), pp. 288–300

Thomas Hartka & Federico E. Vaca (2020). Factors associated with EMS transport decisions for pediatric patients after motor vehicle collisionsTraffic Injury Prevention, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2020.1830382 


Byrne JP, Mann NC, Dai M, et al. Association Between Emergency Medical Service Response Time and Motor Vehicle Crash Mortality in the United States. JAMA Surg. 2019;154(4):286–293.

Kahn, P.A., Dhruva, S.S., Rhee, T.G., and Ross, J.S., 2019 Use of Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Devices for Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest, 2010-2016. JAMA Network Open, 2(10), e1913298.

Nwanne, T., Jarvis, J., Barton, D., Donnelly, J. P., and Wang, H. E., 2019. Advanced airway management success rates in a national cohort of emergency medical services agencies, Resuscitation, 146, pp. 43-49.

Jarvis JL, Wampler D, Wang HE. 2019. Association of Patient Age with First Pass Success in Out-Of-Hospital Advanced Airway Management, Resuscitation,

Munjal KG, Margolis GS, Kellermann AL. 2019. Realignment of EMS Reimbursement Policy: New Hope for Patient-Centered Out-of-Hospital Care. JAMA. Published online

Troske, S. and Davis, A., 2019. Do Hospital Closures Affect Patient Time in an Ambulance? Rural & Underserved Health Research Center, University of Kentucky.

Medrano, N.W., Villarreal, C.L., Price, M.A., MacKenzie, E., Nolte, K.B., Phillips, M.J., Stewart, R.M. and Eastridge, B.J., 2019. Multi-Institutional Multidisciplinary Injury Mortality Investigation in the Civilian Pre-Hospital Environment (MIMIC): a methodology for reliably measuring prehospital time and distance to definitive care. Trauma surgery & acute care open, 4(1), p.e000309.

Hagiwara, M.A., Lundberg, L., Sjöqvist, B.A. and Söderholm, H.M., 2019. The Effects of Integrated IT Support on the Prehospital Stroke Process: Results from a Realistic Experiment. Journal of Healthcare Informatics Research, pp.1-29.

Lipskiy, N., Tyson, J., Zarecki, S.M. and Burkholder, J., 2019. Progress in the Development of the Standardized Public Health Emergency Preparedness Terminology. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, 11(1).

Prahlow, S.P., Atrubin, D., Culpepper, A., Hamilton, J.J., Sturms, J. and Card, K., 2019. Approach to Onboarding Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Data Into a Syndromic Surveillance System. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics, 11(1).

Odom, E., Abbas, A. and Nwaise, I., 2019. Abstract P407: Stroke Dispatch, Provider Impression and Critical Pre-Hospital Time Intervals: NEMSIS, 2016. Circulation, 139(Suppl_1), pp.AP407-AP407.

Nwaise, I. and Odom, E.C., 2019. Abstract P130: Disparities in Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Rates Among Adults, Aged≥ 18 Years Old, With 9-1-1 Emergency Medical Service Activation’s in the United States, 2016. Circulation, 139(Suppl_1), pp.AP130-AP130.

El Sayed MJ, Tamim H, Mailhac A, Mann NC. 2019. Impact of prehospital mechanical ventilation: A retrospective matched cohort study of 911 calls in the United States. Medicine, 98(4) p.e13990.

Byrne JP, Mann NC, Dai M, Mason SA, Karanicolas P, Rizoli S, Nathens A.B. 2019. Association Between Emergency Medical Service Response Time and Motor Vehicle Crash Mortality in the United States. JAMA Surgery.

Watanabe BL, Patterson GS, Kempema JM, Magallanes O, Brown LH. 2019. Is Use of Warning Lights and Sirens Associated With Increased Risk of Ambulance Crashes? A Contemporary Analysis Using National EMS Information System (NEMSIS) Data. Annals of emergency medicine.

Bode AD, Singh M, Andrews JR, Baez AA. 2019. Racial and gender disparities in violent trauma: Results from the NEMSIS database. The American journal of emergency medicine, 37(1) pp.53-55.

Friedman J, Hoof M, Smith A, Tatum D, Ibraheem K, Guidry C, Schroll R, Duchesne J,McGrew P. 2019. Pediatric firearm incidents: it’s time to decrease on-scene mortality. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery.


El Sayed M, El Tawil C, Tamim H, Mailhac A, Mann NC. 2018. Emergency medical services experience with barb removal after taser use by law enforcement: a descriptive national study. Prehospital and disaster medicine pp.1-8.

Hewes HA, Dai M, Mann NC, Baca T, Taillac P. 2018. Prehospital pain management: disparity by age and race. Prehospital Emergency Care, 22(2) pp.189-197.

Tuttle JE, Hubble MW. 2018. Paramedic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest Case Volume Is a Predictor of Return of Spontaneous Circulation. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 19(4), p.654.

Ward C, Simpson, J. 2018. Improving Prehospital Management of Children With Respiratory Distress. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 19(1) pp.4-10.

Hsia RY, Huang D, Mann NC, Colwell C, Mercer MP, Dai M, Niedzwiecki M.J. 2018. A US National Study of the Association Between Income and Ambulance Response Time in Cardiac Arrest. JAMA network open, 1(7) pp.e185202-e185202.

Ruelas OS, Tschautscher CF, Lohse CM, Sztajnkrycer M.D. 2018. Analysis of Prehospital Scene Times and Interventions on Mortality Outcomes in a National Cohort of Penetrating and Blunt Trauma Patients. Prehospital Emergency Care, 22(6) pp.691-697.

Kaufmann MA, Nelson DR, Kaushik P, Mann NC, Mitchell B. 2018. Hypoglycemia Emergencies: Factors Associated with Prehospital Care, Transportation Status, Emergency Department Disposition, and Cost. Prehospital Emergency Care pp.1-12.

Klassen AB, Core SB, Lohse CM, Sztajnkrycer MD. 2018. A descriptive analysis of care provided by law enforcement prior to EMS arrival in the United States. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 33(2), pp.165-170.

Klassen AB, Marshall M, Dai M, Mann NC, Sztajnkrycer MD. 2018. Emergency Medical Services Response to Mass Shooting and Active Shooter Incidents, United States, 2014–2015. Prehospital emergency care pp.1-8.

Benoit SR, Kahn HS, Geller AI, Budnitz DS, Mann NC, Dai M, Gregg EW, Geiss LS. 2018. Diabetes-Related Emergency Medical Service Activations in 23 States, United States 2015. Prehospital Emergency Care, 22(6) pp.705-712.

Silva LOJ, Anderson JL, Bellolio MF, Campbell RL, Myers LA, Luke A, Jeffery MM. 2018. Pediatric emergency medical services in privately insured patients: A 10-year national claims analysis. The American journal of emergency medicine.

El Sayed M, Tamim H, Mailhac A, Mann NC. 2018. Ventilator use by emergency medical services during 911 calls in the United States. The American journal of emergency medicine, 36(5) pp.763-768.

Lewis JF, Zeger SL, Li X, Mann NC, Newgard CD, Haynes S, Wood S, Dai M, Simon AE, McCarthy ML. 2018. Gender Differences in the Quality of EMS Care Nationwide for Chest Pain and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest. Women’s Health Issues.

Duong HV, Herrera LN, Moore JX, Donnelly J, Jacobson KE, Carlson JN, Mann NC, Wang HE. 2018. National characteristics of emergency medical services responses for older adults in the United States. Prehospital emergency care, 22(1) pp.7-14.

Cash RE, Kinsman J, Crowe RP, Rivard MK, Faul M, Panchal AR. 2018. Naloxone Administration Frequency During Emergency Medical Service Events—United States, 2012–2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(31) p.850.


Faul M, Lurie P, Kinsman JM, Dailey MW, Crabaugh C, Sasser SM. 2017. Multiple naloxone administrations among emergency medical service providers is increasing. Prehospital Emergency Care, 21(4) pp.411-419.

Jena AB, Mann NC, Wedlund LN, Olenski A. 2017. Delays in emergency care and mortality during major US marathons. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(15) pp.1441-1450.

Hsia RY, Dai M, Wei R, Sabbagh S, Mann NC. 2017. Geographic discordance between patient residence and incident location in emergency medical services responses. Annals of emergency medicine, 69(1) pp.44-51.

El Sayed MJ, Tamim H, Mailhac A, Mann NC. 2017. Trends and predictors of limb tourniquet use by civilian emergency medical services in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 21(1) pp.54-62.

Shaver J, McRoberts D, O’Byrne B, Morgan B, Krall K, Surjan C, Mayberry J. 2017. Farming and ranching related injuries in Southern Idaho. The American Journal of Surgery, 213(5) pp.881-884.

Gale J, Coburn A, Pearson K, Croll Z, Shaler G. 2017. Developing program performance measures for rural emergency medical services. Prehospital Emergency Care, 21(2) pp.157-165.

Chou R, Korthuis PT, McCarty D, Coffin PO, Griffin JC, Davis-O’Reilly C, Grusing S, Daya M. 2017. Management of suspected opioid overdose with naloxone in out-of-hospital settings: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine, 167(12) pp.867-875.

Moffet HH, Warton EM, Siegel L, Sporer K, Lipska KJ, Karter AJ. 2017. Hypoglycemia patients and transport by EMS in Alameda County, 2013–15. Prehospital Emergency Care, 21(6) pp.767-772.

Steffens C, Clement B, Fales W, Chehade AEH, Putman K, Swor R. 2017. Evaluating the cost and utility of mandating schools to stock epinephrine auto-injectors. Prehospital Emergency Care, 21(5) pp.563-566.

Shtull-Leber E. Silbergleit R, Meurer WJ. 2017. Pre-hospital midazolam for benzodiazepine-treated seizures before and after the Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial: A national observational cohort study. PloS one, 12(3) p.e0173539.

Newgard CD, Fu R, Bulger E, Hedges JR, Mann NC, Wright DA, Lehrfeld DP, Shields C, Hoskins G, Warden C, Wittwer L. 2017. Evaluation of rural vs urban trauma patients served by 9-1-1 emergency medical services. JAMA surgery, 152(1) pp.11-18.

Kumar AR, Butt S, Abudayyeh O, Fredericks T, Kuk M. 2017. Statistical Approaches to Modeling EMS Response Time: A Michigan Case Study (No. 17-01431).


Byrne JP, Mann NC, Hoeft CJ, Buick J, Karanicolas P, Rizoli S, Hunt JP, Nathens A.B. 2016. The impact of short prehospital times on trauma center performance benchmarking: An ecologic study. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 80(4) pp.586-596.

Schwartz J, Dreyer RP, Murugiah K, Ranasinghe I. 2016. Contemporary prehospital Emergency Medical Services response times for suspected stroke in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(5) pp.560-565.

Faul M, Stevens JA, Sasser SM, Alee, L, Deokar AJ, Kuhls DA, Burke PA. 2016. Older adult falls seen by emergency medical service providers: a prevention opportunity. American journal of preventive medicine. 50(6) pp.719-726.

Diggs LA, Sheth-Chandra M, De Leo G. 2016. Epidemiology of pediatric Prehospital basic life support Care in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(2) pp.230-238.

York Cornwell E, Currit A. 2016. Racial and social disparities in bystander support during medical emergencies on US streets. American journal of public health, 106(6) pp.1049-1051.

Schwartz J, Dreyer RP, Murugiah K, Ranasinghe I. 2016. Contemporary prehospital Emergency Medical Services response times for suspected stroke in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(5) pp.560-565.

Olsen JA, Lerner EB, Persse D, Sterz F, Lozano Jr M, Brouwer MA, Westfall M, van Grunsven PM, Travis DT, Herken UR, Brunborg C. 2016. Chest compression duration influences outcome between integrated load‐distributing band and manual CPR during cardiac arrest. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 60(2) pp.222-229.

Carlson JN, Karns C, Mann NC, Jacobson K, Dai M, Colleran C, Wang HE. 2016. Procedures performed by emergency medical services in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(1) pp.15-21.

Berwick D, Downey A, Cornett E, and National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2016. Overview of Contemporary Civilian and Military Trauma Systems. In A National Trauma Care System: Integrating Military and Civilian Trauma Systems to Achieve Zero Preventable Deaths After Injury. National Academies Press (US).

Diggs LA, Sheth-Chandra M, De Leo G. 2016. Epidemiology of pediatric Prehospital basic life support Care in the United States. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(2) pp.230-238.

Faul M, Aikman SN, Sasser SM. 2016. Bystander intervention prior to the arrival of emergency medical services: comparing assistance across types of medical emergencies. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(3) pp.317-323.

Mueller LR, Donnelly JP, Jacobson KE, Carlson JN, Mann NC, Wang HE. 2016. National characteristics of emergency medical services in frontier and remote areas. Prehospital Emergency Care, 20(2) pp.191-199.

El Sayed M, Tamim H, Mann NC. 2016. Description of medication administration by Emergency Medical Services during mass-casualty incidents in the United States. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 31(2) pp.141-149.


Martin AJ, Lohse CM, Sztajnkrycer, MD. 2015. A descriptive analysis of prehospital response to hazardous materials events. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 30(5) pp.466-471.

Mann NC, Kane L, Dai M, Jacobson K. 2015. Description of the 2012 NEMSIS public-release research dataset. Prehospital emergency care, 19(2) pp.232-240.

Faul M, Dailey MW, Sugerman DE, Sasser SM, Levy B, Paulozzi LJ. 2015. Disparity in naloxone administration by emergency medical service providers and the burden of drug overdose in US rural communities. American journal of public health, 105(S3) pp.e26-e32.

Hansen M, Lambert W, Guise JM, Warden CR, Mann NC, Wang H. 2015. Out-of-hospital pediatric airway management in the United States. Resuscitation, 90 pp.104-110.

Tataris KL, Mercer MP, Govindarajan P. 2015. Prehospital aspirin administration for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the USA: an EMS quality assessment using the NEMSIS 2011 database. Emerg Med J, 32(11) pp.876-881.

Drayna PC, Browne LR, Guse CE, Brousseau DC, Lerner E.B. 2015. Prehospital pediatric care: opportunities for training, treatment, and research. Prehospital emergency care, 19(3) pp.441-447.

Carlson JN, Gannon E, Mann NC, Jacobson KE, Dai M, Colleran C, Wang HE, 2015. Pediatric out-of-hospital critical procedures in the United States. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 16(8) pp.e260-e267.

El Sayed M, Tamim H, Mann NC. 2015. Description of procedures performed on patients by emergency medical services during mass casualty incidents in the United States. The American journal of emergency medicine, 33(8) pp.1030-1036.


Tunik MG, Mann NC, Lerner E. 2014. Pediatric emergency medical services research. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine, 15(1) pp.96-103.

Genovesi AL, Hastings B, Edgerton EA, Olson LM. 2014. Pediatric emergency care capabilities of Indian Health Service emergency medical service agencies serving American Indians/Alaska Natives in rural and frontier areas. Rural Remote Health, 14(2) p.2688.

Patel MD, Brice JH, Moss C, Suchindran CM, Evenson KR, Rose KM, Rosamond WD. 2014. An evaluation of emergency medical services stroke protocols and scene times. Prehospital Emergency Care, 18(1) pp.15-21.

Schenk E, Wijetunge G, Mann NC, Lerner EB, Longthorne A, Dawson D. 2014. Epidemiology of mass casualty incidents in the United States. Prehospital emergency care, 18(3) pp.408-416.

Diggs LA, Yusuf JEW, De Leo G. 2014. An update on out-of-hospital airway management practices in the United States. Resuscitation, 85(7) pp.885-892.

Flannagan C, Elliott MR, Mann NC, Rupp JD. 2014. Sampling Serious Injuries in Traffic Crashes at the State Level. Transportation Research Record, 2432(1), pp.118-123.

Karns CJ, Carlson JN, Mann NC, Jacobson KE, Dai M, Colleran C, Wang HE. 2014. 76 Classification and Frequency of Emergency Medical Services Procedures Performed in the United States. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 64(4) p.S28.

Newgard CD, Richardson D, Holmes JF, Rea TD, Hsia RY, Mann NC, Staudenmayer K, Barton ED, Bulger EM, Haukoos JS, and Western Emergency Services Translational Research Network (WESTRN) Investigators, 2014. Physiologic field triage criteria for identifying seriously injured older adults. Prehospital Emergency Care, 18(4) pp.461-470.


Caceres JA, Adil MM, Jadhav V, Chaudhry SA, Pawar S, Rodriguez GJ, Suri MFK, Qureshi AI. 2013. Diagnosis of stroke by emergency medical dispatchers and its impact on the prehospital care of patients. Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases, 22(8) pp.e610-e614.

Wang HE, Mann NC, Jacobson KE, Mears G, Smyrski K, Yealy DM. 2013. National characteristics of emergency medical services responses in the United States. Prehospital emergency care, 17(1) pp.8-14.

Tataris K, Govindarajan P, Mercer M, Yeh C, Sporer, K. 2013. Out-of-Hospital Aspirin Administration for Acute Coronary Syndrome in the United States: An EMS Quality Assessment Using the NEMSIS (National EMS Information System) Database. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 62(4) p.S45.

Westgard BC, Peterson BK, Salzman JG, Anderson R, Buldra M, Burnett A M. 2013. Longitudinal and regional trends in paramedic student exposure to advanced airway placement: 2001–2011. Prehospital Emergency Care, 17(3) pp.379-385.

Mowafi H, Dworkis D, Bisanzo M, Hansoti B, Seidenberg P, Obermeyer Z, Hauswald M, Reynolds TA. 2013. Making Recording and Analysis of Chief Complaint a Priority for Global Emergency Care Research in Low‐income Countries. Academic Emergency Medicine, 20(12) pp.1241-1245.

Haider AH, Hashmi ZG, Zafar SN, Hui X, Schneider EB, Efron DT, Haut ER, Cooper LA, MacKenzie EJ, Cornwell III EE. 2013. Minority trauma patients tend to cluster at trauma centers with worse-than-expected mortality: can this phenomenon help explain racial disparities in trauma outcomes? Annals of surgery, 258(4) p.572.

Fleischman RJ, Lundquist M, Jui J, Newgard CD, Warden C. 2013. Predicting ambulance time of arrival to the emergency department using global positioning system and Google maps. Prehospital Emergency Care, 17(4) pp.458-465.

Newgard CD, Mann NC, Hsia RY, Bulger EM, Ma OJ, Staudenmayer K, Haukoos JS, Sahni R, Kuppermann, N, and Western Emergency Services Translational Research Network (WESTRN) Investigators. 2013. Patient choice in the selection of hospitals by 9‐1‐1 emergency medical services providers in trauma systems. Academic Emergency Medicine, 20(9) pp.911-919.


Mader TJ, Nathanson BH, Millay S, Coute RA, Clapp M, McNally B. 2012. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outcomes stratified by rhythm analysis. Resuscitation, 83(11) pp.1358-1362.

Erich J. 2012. What do you do with that data? NEMSIS is power–learn how to take advantage. EMS world, 41(9) pp.61-61.

Jadhav V, Pawar S, Chaudhry S, Hassan A, Rodriguez G, Suri MF, Qureshi A. 2012. Accuracy of Stroke Identification by EMS Dispatch Units: An Analysis of National Emergency Medical Services Information System Data (NEMSIS)(P02. 221).

Newgard CD, Zive D, Jui J, Weathers C, Daya M. 2012. Electronic Versus Manual Data Processing: Evaluating the Use of Electronic Health Records in Out‐of‐hospital Clinical Research. Academic Emergency Medicine, 19(2) pp.217-227.

Clark DE, Qian J, Sihler KC, Hallagan LD, Betensky RA. 2012. The distribution of survival times after injury. World journal of surgery, 36(7) pp.1562-1570.

Atach Investigators, 2012. Antihypertensive Medication in Suspected Stroke Patients in Pre-Hospital Settings in United States (P02. 197). Neurology, 78(1 Supplement) pp.P02-197.


Newgard CD, Zive D, Malveau S, Leopold R, Worrall W, Sahni R. 2011. Developing a statewide emergency medical services database linked to hospital outcomes: a feasibility study. Prehospital Emergency Care, 15(3) pp.303-319.

Wang HE, Mann NC, Mears G, Jacobson K, Yealy DM. 2011. Out-of-hospital airway management in the United States. Resuscitation, 82(4) pp.378-385.

Cairns C, Potenziani D, Hoit M, Jenkins C, and Edgemon S. 2011. Novel approach to statewide biosurveillance using emergency medical services (EMS) information. Emerg Health Threats J pg. 4.

Scottpg EE, Earle-Richardson G, Krupa N, Jenkins P. 2011. A correction factor for estimating statewide agricultural injuries from ambulance reports. Annals of epidemiology, 21(10) pp.767-772.


Carol Hafley MHA. 2010. Building a PSO “Field of Dreams” for Emergency Medical Services. Partnership.


Shaeffer Z, Gohdes D, Legler J, Taillac P and Larsen B. 2009. Monitoring prehospital stroke care in Utah to assess the feasibility of using EMS data for surveillance. Preventing chronic disease, 6(4) p. 1-5.

Forst L, and Erskine T, 2009. Farm injuries in Ohio, 2003-2006: a report from the emergency medical services prehospital database. Journal of agricultural safety and health, 15(2) pp.171-183.


Chen R, Sharman R, Chakravarti N, Rao HR, Upadhyaya SJ. 2008. Emergency response information system interoperability: development of chemical incident response data model. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 9(3) p.7.

Morrison LJ, Nichol G, Rea TD, Christenson J, Callaway CW, Stephens S, Pirrallo RG, Atkins DL, Davis DP, Idris AH, and Newgard C. 2008. Rationale, development and implementation of the resuscitation outcomes consortium epistry—cardiac arrest. Resuscitation, 78(2) pp.161-169.